NOTICE: ~ Employees receiving this book, are required to carefully study and preserve it; and when leaving the Company's service, to pass it over to their successors.
       These rules supersede and take the place of all rules and orders heretofore made or issued that conflict therewith.




D I R E C T O R S.

J. H. Wade, Cleveland, O. R. S. Burrows, Albion, N. Y.
Hiram Sibley, Rochester, N. Y. Ezea Cornell, Ithaca, N. Y.
Isaac Butts, Rochester, N. Y. Anson Stager, Cleveland, O.
H. R. Selden, Rochester, N. Y. N. Green, Louisville, Ky.
O. H. Palmer, Rochester, N. Y. Wm. Orton, New York, N. Y.
B. R. McAlpine, Rochester, N. Y. P. McD. Collins, New York, N. Y.
Geo. H. Mumford, Rochester, N. Y. Cambridge Livingston, N. Y.
D. A. Watson, Rochester, N. Y. Wilson G. Hunt, New York.
John Butterfield, Utica, N. Y. E. S. Sanford, New York.
Alfred Gaither, Cincinnati, O. D. N. Barney, New York.
T. T. Eckert, New York.  

O F F I C E R S.

J. H. Wade~President
Hiram Sibley~Vice President
Wm. Orton~Vice President
N. Green~Vice President
O. H. Palmer~Secretary and Treasurer
W. H. Abel~Assistant Secretary
T. Hart Rochester~Assistant Treasurer
E. Chapman~Auditor
Marshall Lefferts~Engineer, New York
Anson Stager~Gen'l Sup't Central Division
T. T. Eckert~Gen'l Sup't Eastern Division
John Van Horne~Gen'l Sup't Southern Division
J. C. Hinchman~Sup't Metropolitan District, New York
Wm. Hunter~Sup't of Supply Department
Geo. H. Smith~Sup't of Check and Free Message Dep't


D. Brooks~Philadelphia, Sup't 1st District
G. W. Balch~Buffalo, Sup't 2d District
T. B. A. David~Pittsburgh, Sup't 3d District
S. B. Gifford~Syracuse, N.Y., Sup't 4th District
E. P. Wright~Cleveland, O., Sup't 5th District
D. H. Fitch~Franklin, Pa., Sup't 6th District
Geo. T. Williams~Cincinnati, O., Sup't 7th District
John F. Wallick~Indianapolis, Sup't 8th District
R. C. Clowry~St. Louis, Sup't 9th District
R. C. Rankin~Chicago, Sup't 10th District
Ed. Creighton~Omaha, Sup't 11th District
L. G. Tillotson~Sup't Erie Railway District
A. G. Davis~Sup't Baltimore and Ohio District


Jesse Hoyt~Halifax, N. S., Sup't 1st District
J. G. Smith~Bangor, Me., Sup't 2d District
J. S. Bedlow~Portland, Me., Sup't 3d District
G. W. Gates~White River Junction, Sup't 4th District
C. F. Wood~Boston, Sup't 5th District
G. B. Prescott~Albany, Sup't 6th District
W. H. Heiss~New York, Sup't 7th District
W. O. Lewis~New York, Sup't 8th District


J. R. Dowell~Richmond, Va., Sup't 1st District
J. W. Kates~Lynchburg, Va., Sup't 2d District
J. A. Brenner~Agusta, Ga., Sup't 3d District
C. G. Meriwether~Mobile, Ala., Sup't 4th District
James Compton~Jackson, Miss., Sup't 5th District
James Coleman~Memphis, Tenn., Sup't 6th District
Thomas Johnson~Corinth, Miss., Sup't 7th District
George W. Trabue~Nashnille, Tenn., Sup't 8th District
L. C. Baker~Little Rock, Ark., Sup't 9th District
W. L. Davis~Shreveport, La., Sup't 10th District
D. P. Shepherd~Huston, Texas, Sup't 11th District

To the Officers, Managers, Operators, etc.,
       of the Western Union Telegraph Company

       The following Rules and Instructions are necessary to insure uniformity in all departments of the business of the Company, and to obviate the evils that threaten to seriously impair the business of the Company, and the reputation of those in its service.
       The attention of those who have had the benefit of time and experience in the details of the Company's business, is requested to the importance of strictly adhering to these Rules, and the are expected to urge upon the inexperienced employes, by example, as well as by precipt, an habitual and careful observance of the same.
       If any of these Rules seem to operate against the interest of the Company, you will report your opinion to the Secretary by letter, with the facts upon which it is founded.

R E C E I V I N G   D E P A R T M E N T


       A competent person to receive messages from the public must be in attendance at 7 o'clock A. M., from March first until November first, and as early as 7 1/2 o'clock during the winter months.


       Messages for transmission must be written upon printed blank No. 2, under the conditions upon which this Company transmit all messages. If a case should occur in which this would be impossible, the Receiver will apply some paste to one of the said blanks, and require the person presenting the message to attach the same permanently to the face of the said blank, so as to leave the printed heading in full view and immediatly above the message. The Receiver should not himself attach the message to the printed blank, except as stated below, but the person offering the message should do it. If, however, a person presenting a message not written on blank No. 2, should refuse to attach it to the blank, after the Receiver has applied the paste, he will offer to do it for the customer, with his assent - saying yo him at the time, "I will do it for you, sir, if you wish," or words of similar import; and the Receiver will then make his private mark on it, so that at any time thereafter he can testify that he did it at the request of the customer.
       In case a party doing considerable business with the Company objects to complying with this rule, for the reason that he is in the habit of writing his messages at his place of business, and sending them to the office, or for the reason that it is troublesome and annoying, the Receiver may, in such cases, take one of the No. 2 blanks and write under the conditions the following, viz: "It is understood and agreed that all messages hereafter taken from me by the Western Union Telegraph Company, are to be received and transmitted by said Company subject to the above agreement and conditions, the same as if each message was written thereunder and subscribed by me." This, signed by the party, and being properly dated, will be sent by the Manager or Receiver to the Secretary at New York, retaining a copy of the same for reference.
       It is confidently expected that by treating all customers in a conciliatory and gentlemanly manner, each Receiver and Manager will be able, by pursuing substantially the course above indicated, to obviate all objections that may be made to this rule, and induce a universal compliance therewith. This rule is as liberal as a reasonable protection to the rights of the Company will permit, and implicit obedience thereto is enjoined.


       Whenever messages which have come over the line of any other Telegraph Company, are offered by such Company for transmission, the person presenting the message must be required to paste it, or write it on one of the No. 2 blanks of this Company, under the printed conditions, and sign his name for the Company he represents, under the line "Send the following message subject to above terms, which are agreed to."


       And whenever messages which have come over the line of any other Telegraph Company, are offered at points on this line not indicated by the tariff book or published tariffs of this Company, as the proper place for such business to reach this Company's lines, or whenever messages are received by mail at any office to be forwarded by telegraph-or in case a person having received a message requests the same to be forwarded to any other office, in all such cases require pre-payment; and in estimating the amount to be paid, include, as a part of the message, the name of the place where it originated, and the date, as the same appears on the message. Transmit such message in the same form as received; then after the signature add, in a short form, the name of your office, date at which you receive it, and sufficient to indicate by what line, or in what manner the message comes to you.
       That there may be uniformity in practice, the following examples are given to be observed:
       If a message in the following form, viz:

       "BUFFALO, Oct. 10th, 1865.
       JOHN BROWN, Geneva, N. Y.-
       Meet me here next Monday, at 10 o'clock in the forenoon.
       H. SMITH."

should pass over the line of another Telegraph Company from Buffalo to Rochester, and at that place be offered at our office for transmission to Geneva, the message would be received on the terms mentioned above, and transmitted in the following form:

       "BUFFALO, Oct. 10th, 1865.
       JOHN BROWN, Geneva, N. Y.
       Meet me here next Monday, at 10 o'clock in the forenoon.
       H. SMITH."
       18 Rh 64 pd (By other line to Rochester, Oct. 10th.)

       Thus adding in and charging for, as a part of the message, the seven words and figures, "Buffalo, Oct. 10th, 1865." And in such case, the operator at Geneva, when writing the message for delivery, would not put the Rochester date at the top, as is the usual practice, but write it as received, at the bottom, immediately following the signature, as in the 'above example.
       If a message in the following form, viz:

       "MEDINA, Ohio, Oct. 21st, 1865.
       GEORGE SMITH, Mansion House, Buffalo
       Your wife very ill-come at once.
       HENRY DAVIS."

is received by mail at Cleveland, with a request to forward the same by telegraph to Buffalo, the message would be transmitted on the terms mentioned above, and in the following form, viz:

       "MEDINA, Ohio, Oct. 21st, 1865.
       GEORGE SMITH, Mansion House, Buffalo
       Your wife very ill-come at once.
       HENRY DAVIS."
       16 H 105 pd (By mail to Cleveland, Oct. 22d.)

Thus adding in and charging for as a part of the message the nine words and figures, " Medina, Ohio, Oct. 21, 1865." The operator at Buffalo in copying the message for delivery, would put the Cleveland date following the signature, just as received, as in the above example.
       If a message in the following form, viz:

       "BUFFALO, Oct. 8th, 1865.
       ROBERT RANKIN, Cleveland.
       Go to Milwaukee and await orders.
       AMOS BROWN".

is received by any other person, by telegraph or by mail at Cleveland, and a request is made to have the same forwarded by telegraph to another destination, under the above mentioned conditions, the message would be transmitted in the following form:

       "BUFFALO, Oct. 8th, 1865.
       ROBERT RANKIN, Chicago
       Go to Milwaukee and await orders.
       AMOS BROWN."
       13 H 144 pd (Forwarded from Cleveland, Oct. 9th.)

Thus adding in and charging for as a part of the message, the seven words and figures, "Buffalo, Oct. 8, 1865." The operator at Chicago should copy for delivery in the form transmitted as in example.
       It will be understood that the date following the signature should conform to the time the message was received at the office forwarding the same.


       In all such cases of messages sent over an indirect route and subjected to repetitions that would have been avoided if put upon the direct line in the first instance, you will fill up and mail to the person sending the message, a notice in accordance with the form given upon the last page of this book. Printed blanks for this purpose will be furnished upon proper requisition.


       It is important that these instructions should be strictly observed, so that this Company may receive a proper remuneration for the extra labor occasioned by such irregular messages, and be able to keep its accounts and checks correctly, and also enable other parties interested to trace messages in case of loss or mistake.


       In messages containing amounts or numbers, require the customer in every instance to write the message in words and duplicate them in figures, but in such cases the figures are not to be counted or charged for. In such cases place the figures immediately following the word or words they duplicate or represent.

[Example: Bought five (5) horses for six hundred (600) dollars. Sold four hundred (400) bushels wheat at two (2) dollars forty-five (45) cents.]


       All messages presented for transmission should first be carefully read and every letter clearly understood by the Receiver. The address should be scrutinized, and if not deemed sufficient, a more complete one requested, and any thing likely to be misunderstood or liable to occasion error in transmission mUSt be made perfectly plain before being passed into the hands of the operator for transmission.


       Whenever the address of a person presenting a message is not well known, care should be taken to obtain it, and the same should be noted either in a book kept for that purpose, or upon the message to be sent. As a proper precaution, this should be done whether the message requires an answer or not.


       The time at which the message is received for transmission, should in all cases be indicated by the Receiver conspicuously upon the margin of the communication.


       In counting the words, in all messages, the following rules will be observed:

       Names of cities and places, when used to designate such cities or places, will be counted as one word; for example- New Orleans, New York, West Troy.

       Words connected by a hyphen, as found in Webster's Dictionary, to be counted as one word. Examples- to-day, rail-road, headquarters, aid-de-camp.

       Names of persons and places, when given to things, must be counted according to the number of distinct words in each. Examples- names of Steamers- Isaac Newton, two words; Maid of the Mist, four words. Names of Hotels-Burnet House, two words; United States Hotel, three words.

       When there are prefixes to surnames, such as "Van," "Mac" or "Mc," "Saint" or "St," "O," "De," as in Van Rensselaer, McGregor, Saint Nicholas, O'Connor, De Witt, the whole name is to be regarded as one word.

       No message must be telegraphed from dictation, or otherwise than from legible copy, which copy must be filed for future reference.


       Every message telegraphed, whether "free," "paid," or "collect," must be checked at the end with the number of words it contains. If "paid" or "collect," the amount must be stated in the check, with the name or signal letter of the office where paid or to be collected. Thus, on a message paid in Buffalo, the check should be "10 Bu 50 pd." If to be collected, "10 Bu 50 col."


       If a part of the tariff is for "other Lines," the amount for "this Line" should be first stated, and then the amount for "other Lines." Thus, on a message paid or collect in Buffalo "10 Bu 50 and 25 pd.," or "10 Bu 50 and 25 col."


       Whenever more than one signature is attached to a message, count all initials and names, except the last signature, as a part of the body of the message.


       Whenever a message is to be dropped in the Post Office at its place of destination, the Manager or Receiver will collect the postage and add the amount to the regular tariff check. The office receiving the same for delivery will be careful to affix the required postage stamp before dropping it in the Post Office, and take credit for the same in the monthly Report, as "miscellaneous expenses," with other postages paid during the month.


       All large offices should keep a Blotter, in which should be briefly entered, at the time of receiving, every message received for transmission.


       No message on the business of the person sending it must ever be taken, unless pre-paid.


       No message addressed to a transient person, or one absent from home, must be sent "to collect," unless the amount of tariff is guaranteed by a responsible party.


       Nor must any other kind of message whatever be taken to send "collect," unless guaranteed by a responsible party, except the same is known to be a reply to a message requiring an answer.


       Whenever messages requiring answers are offered by transient persons, it is proper for the Receiver to request and secure pay for the answer in advance, charging the rate for a single message of ten words. In such case the original message should be marked "33," indicating that the answer of ten words has been or will be paid for at the office originally sending.


       Care must be taken in preserving and filing away messages which have been transmitted, in order to make reference thereto easy and expeditious. Each day's business should be kept separate- every message therein filed with a number corresponding to its entry on the Register Book. At the close of the month, each day's business plainly marked, should be enclosed together, and the same properly labelled. These packages must be retained at least two years, after which they will be disposed of as the Division Superintendent may direct.


       The Manager of an office is held accountable for, and is responsible to the Company for all property and supplies whatsoever in or belonging to his office- for all money received, and for all transactions involving the payment of money, in the regular and legitimate business of the office, except that at large offices, where a cashier may be appointed by the Company, he will be held responsible for the money, and all money transactions. No Manager or other office employe is authorized, but, on the contrary, is prohibited from contracting any debts or obligations on account of this Company, except by direct authority in writing of the General or District Superintendent.


       Managers are expected and required to prevent loss and waste of stationery, office supplies, line repair material, fuel, light, &c., and to exercise the same care of office furniture and other property in their charge, and the same rigid economy in management as would be expected of a prudent business man in conducting his private affairs. Departure from this rule will be considered sufficient cause for a change in the management of an office.


       Payment of salaries should be made at the close of each month.


       No responsibility will be assumed by this Company for the delivery of any message beyond the limits of ordinary office delivery. Managers may, upon receiving a deposit of money sufficient to cover all expense, undertake to have messages delivered by special messenger from any point at which this Company have an office.


       Branch offices, in any place, are required to report to the Manager of the main office therein, and abide by all rules and regulations respecting the ordinary transaction of the business of the main office- produce daily original copies of all messages which have been sent- copies of all messages received- and account to him daily for all moneys taken in the transaction of business.


       All communications from Managers of offices, relating to the business of the Company, should be addressed to the District Superintendent.

28 1/2.

       All messages to or from points on the lines of Telegraph Companies with which this Company exchanges business, must be accompanied in their transmission by the name of the office at which it leaves this line, or at which it reaches this line.
       For example A message from Springfield, Ill., may reach this line by the lines of the Illinois & Missouri Telegraph Company at either Chicago or St. Louis. If by way of Chicago, the address should be transmitted thus: " From Springfield, Il., via Chicago." If by way of St. Louis, thus: " From Springfield, Il., via St. Louis."

O P E R A T I N G   D E P A R T M E N T


       Persons employed in the Operating Department are expected to conform to such rules and regulations respecting working hours, meal times, etc., as may be deemed most conducive to the prompt transaction of business.


       At offices where more than one operator is employed, meal hours should be so arranged as to have at least one half the force on hand during meal times, and in no case must the office be left without an operator in attendance during business hours.


       Absence from duty, without special permission from the District Superintendent, will not be tolerated.


       At offices where a line repairer is stationed, and trains leave at an early hour between daylight and the usual hour for opening, an operator must be especially detailed to test wires, and notify repairer, if necessary, in order to place lines in working order at the earliest practicable moment.


       The chief operator at all terminal points, will be expected to test wires, and ascertain the location of any interruption to the circuit, and to give directions for making temporary repairs. Operators at intermediate offices will report to and promptly obey any instructions from him, and are expected to use diligence in doing any thing required to place wires in working order in the shortest possible space of time.


       Care must be taken in the use of wires upon which Railroad business has preference, not to hinder or delay important Railroad communications. Operators should make themselves conversant with signals used upon different Railroad lines to indicate train orders, or any other important communications, and they must be respected accordingly. Struggling for circuit is never admissible.


       The Chief Operator will be held strictly responsible for the good condition of the main battery at all times. If practicable, it should never be wholly taken down, but cleaned and renewed by sections. Whenever it becomes necessary to remove the main battery entirely from the lines, offices must be notified; and in case railroad lines are worked by it, reference had to their convenience.


       As a safeguard, the main battery must be thoroughly examined immediately before closing office for the night, to see that no interruption is likely to occur from imperfectly soldered connections or other cause.


       It will be the duty of the chief operator, or his assistant, at all main, terminal or repeating offices, to keep a daily record of all difficulties, interruptions or incidents occurring in the working of lines.


       All messages must be transmitted as they are received. No abbreviations must be used excepting in office communications. When periods and other punctuation marks are used, care must be taken to transmit them precisely as contained in the original. A period after the address, dividing the same from the body of the message, must always be inserted. When obscure or difficult words appear in messages, the transmission must be slow and distinct, and if an error is likely to occur, the obscure sentence or difficult word or words must be repeated after the check.


       Operators will use extra caution in the transmission of proper names. Write the names slowly, and make double the usual space between the initals.


       Words containing spaced letters, like C. O. R. Z., &c., should be transmitted with caution. Make such letters plain, separate and distinct.


       Before opening the key, adjust the relay carefully, particularly in wet weather, to make sure that some other office is not using the line.


       Before commencing to send a message to an office which receives by register paper, always make a few dots, to enable the receiving operator to adjust his instrument.


       In working with inexperienced operators, write slowly and plainly, and be sure that the message is understood. A good operator will not be known entirely by the swiftness with which he dispatches business, but to a great extent by the care and safeguard against error which he practices.


       Operators not perfectly competent to do so, are warned against attempting to receive messages by sound. A careful person will always run the Register paper as a safeguard. Never guess at a word; better have it repeated many times than make a mistake.


       No message will be considered as having been properly received, and no operator will allow a message to pass through his hands, without first counting the words, comparing the check, and otherwise satisfying himself it is correct.


       Whenever a message has been received, in which an error is supposed to have occurred in the transmission- the number of words not corresponding with the check, or otherwise the Manager or Chief Operator may, at his discretion, cause the message to be delivered to the party addressed, with a notation thereon, stating that the message is thus delivered, subject to correction afterwards. In such cases a copy of the message must be retained, and the utmost dispatch used in securing correction. When the delay is only temporary, and not affecting the value of the message, it will not be delivered until corrected.


       Great care must be taken to avoid the duplication of messages. In all cases of the delivery of the duplicate copy of a message, the word "Duplicate" must be distinctly written across the face.


       Office messages relating to correction, loss, or anything affecting the value of a message, shall have preference over any other business, and in no case must an office message be destroyed or wilfully delayed in transmission. When office messages are needlessly sent, or unnecessarily worded, the same should be reported to the Superintendent.


       The transmission of messages should include the number of the message and the day of the month. The name of the place from which the message originates, and its destination, must be written out in full, whether passing through a repeating office or not.. The name of the State must accompany the name of place in the address, in all cases, except the names of the leading commercial cities of the United States, such as New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Cincinnati, Chicago, St. Louis, and San Francisco.


       Extraordinary care must be exercised in sending and receiving Repeated or Insured Messages. The original message should be plainly written, and the Operator sending it must be certain that it is read correctly when transmitted. The Operator who receives it, must copy it plainly, and then repeat it back over the same circuit before doing any other business. If the message is to be forwarded beyond the circuit on which it originates, the Operator who receives the message, (after being satisfied of its entire accuracy) will himself transmit the message over the next circuit, and will not be relieved from the responsibility of such message till repeated back from the office to which he transmits it. A memorandum of the time and the circumstances attending the receiving, transmission, and repeating back, should be written upon the margin by the Operator, and properly filed for reference. This repetition is required for the protection of the Company from loss or error, and is not intended to be repeated back from the place of destination to the point at which it originates, for the information of the customer, except in cases of specially Insured Messages.


       It will be observed, by reference to printed conditions on blank No. 2, that a distinction is made between Repeated and Insured Messages. In the transmission of the latter, all the directions relating to the treatment of Repeated Messages will be observed, and in addition thereto further precautionary directions in relation to Insured Messages will be hereafter given.


       Blank Policies, signed by the Superintendent, will be prepared and distributed to Managers, to be used in case senders of messages may wish them specially insured, (in addition to repeating,) for an agreed amount of risk. Full instructions on the subject of such special insurance will accompany such policies. Until such policies are distributed to offices, no person except the Superintendent is authorized to make such special insurance.


       Whenever an insured or a "repeated" message in course of transmission, is stopped at a repeating office, in consequence of the interruption of a wire over which it must pass to reach its destination, and the delay is likely to be of long duration, the office from which it was originally sent should be promptly notified of the fact.


       No Operator shall be deemed entitled to work upon one wire or instrument only, to the exclusion of others; but will be expected to answer calls or send messages upon any other instrument or wires, when necessary and not engaged with other duties.


       Profane, obscene, or other ungentlemanly language upon the part of operators, will not be allowed upon the wires under any circumstances, nor in the offices of this Company.


       Persons not directly connected with the Operating Department, cannot be allowed within the operating room. Operators should recognize the necessity of rigid enforcement of this rule, so far as not to invite their friends inside the office; and strict privacy of all messages must be observed.


       Inasmuch as errors in messages are almost always made by the receiving operator, he will, as a rule, be held responsible for all such errors. He will therefore see the necessity of extreme care, and in all cases when he has any doubt, use the means in his power to be certain that he is correct.


       When calling an office, the office calling will sign the office signal at short intervals.


       When leaving the office temporarily or for the night, the main line must be cut off from the instruments. This, however, should never be done without examining the switch or cutoff, to make sure that circuit is complete through it.


       The ground wire at intermediate offices must never be used except in cases of breaks in the wire, and then only long enough to enable an office to do the business in hand, after which it must be instantly removed, first notifying the end office.


       The ground wire must never be used as a protection against lightning. During heavy storms, the main wires should be securely cut off from instruments.

F R E E   M E S S A G E S


       In order to relieve the wires of the pressure of free business, and of any improper use thereof, the messages of an unofficial character, to and from employes of the Company, must be restricted to their own urgent social messages, and in every case such messages shall be approved by the Manager of the office from which it is sent. The copies of such messages to be regularly filed with the free messages.


       The Official Correspondence over the wires between Managers, Operators, and other employes of the Company, must be limited to matters of an urgent nature and that will not bear the delay of the mail. Use the mail for all matters that will not suffer by the delay.


       Messages for Theatres, Shows, Concerts and places of amusement of any kind, will in no case be transmitted over the wires of this Company without payment of the usual charges.


       Whenever the Manager of an office has reason to suppose that an individual holding the franking privilege is making an improper use thereof, by transmitting business messages for purpose of private speculation or otherwise, it is his duty to notify his Superintendent of the fact.


       When any message entitled to be transmitted free of charge is to be sent, and the reason for being free is not well known, it should be stated in words following the check. When this requirement is not observed, or when the reason for being sent free is deemed insufficient, the Receiver will be held responsible for the usual tariff charges on such messages.


       The number of words contained in a free message, will be stated by the Receiver at the end of the message, and the number will in all cases be transmitted by the operator.


       At the end of the month, each office will be required to make up a statement showing the aggregate amount of free business done, and the total number of free messages SENT, for any individual, Railroad, Transportation, Express, or other Company, which, with the originals of all of such free messages SENT during the month, must be forwarded to the District Superintendent with the regular Monthly Report. The amount of tariff which WOULD have been chargeable had the message been paid for, and the reason for sending such message free, must be endorsed upon the margin of the message before being sent to the Superintendent. The package enclosing the free messages must be plainly endorsed with the name of the Office from which sent.


       Repeating Offices will separate the "local" free from the "through" free, properly endorse each package, and send all to the Superintendent. The "local" messages will include only the local messages SENT; the "through" will include all free messages repeated at the Office.


       Offices on Railroads upon which there is a wire devoted exclusively to Railroad business, are not required to send to the District Superintendent messages upon Railroad business between local points on said wire; but messages destined for points off that Road passing over any other portion of the Telegraph Company's lines, should be included; or a copy thereof, if it is desirable to retain the original for reference. These rules will not apply to "Office Messages."


       Managers are directed to see that the free privilege authorized by any pass is strictly confined to the person and places named in the pass, and that the pass has not expired. All passes hereafter issued will be limited as to the territory to which they apply and to the time they are to run. The pass is not transferable, nor intended for use, except by the individual himself. These rules do not apply to messages of the President, Vice President, Secretary, General Superintendent, District Superintendents, Auditor, or to messages relating to the Supply Department.

D E L I V E R Y   O F   M E S S A G E S


       A copy of the message to be delivered must in all cases be retained in the office, except when otherwise ordered by the District Superintendent.


       All messages received for delivery should be carefully read, to ascertain if an answer is required, and if requiring an answer, diligent effort should be made to obtain it. The word "Answer" or "Reply" must be plainly marked upon the Envelope, and the Messenger be required to either obtain the answer or return to the office a sufficient reason in writing for not obtaining it. If no answer is returned, the Manager or Delivery clerk will write the reason therefor in the Delivery Register for future reference. Messengers must in all cases be supplied with blanks No. 2, on which answers can be written.


       A receipt must be obtained for every message delivered, which must be carefully kept for future reference. In case the person addressed cannot be found, the reason in writing must be given by the Messenger, and the facts investigated by the Manager of the office. The Messenger must in no case be allowed to enter messages in the delivery book, nor to write the reason for non-delivery upon the message itself; this must be done by the Delivery Clerk.


       Extraordinary pains must be taken with Repeated or Insured Messages. Personal delivery should be made, if practicable. Otherwise, to the Clerk or Agent of the party, if at his place of business. If his place of business be closed, then delivery may be made at his residence to the party, or to some member of his family of mature age, unless he has directed otherwise, as provided in next rule.


       In order to facilitate the delivery of messages after business hours, business men and others likely to have messages, should be requested to name in writing the place at which they wish messages delivered, other than at their place of business. (See printed form No. 28, following these rules, which should be preserved.) Whenever messages cannot be delivered, in addition to notifying the office from which it was sent, notice should be sent through the Post Office to the person addressed, (see printed form No. 26, following these rules,) but the message itself should be retained in the office until the close of the month, when copies of all undelivered messages, whether paid or collect, will be made and sent to the District Superintendent with monthly report.


       Pre-paid Undelivered Messages must be enclosed separately, having endorsed upon each the reason for non-delivery, and plainly marked "Dead Messages" upon the wrapper, with the name of the place from which sent, and retained at the office for reference, unless otherwise ordered.


       Undelivered "Collect" Messages will be enclosed with monthly report to the Superintendent as vouchers, endorsed with the reason for non-delivery.


       Every Office averaging more than twenty-five received messages per day, is required to keep a delivery Register Book, in addition to the Messengers' Receipt Book. The former must contain a record of every message received for delivery; the time received and sent out; the number; the person addressed; the name of Messenger, and the fact whether an answer is required or not. Blank books for this purpose can be obtained from the District Superintendent at smaller offices, notations of these facts must be made upon the copy of the message retained in the office.


       The success of the business, and the credit of the Company largely depend upon the promptness with which the business is done, and no branch of it requires greater energy, care and promptitude, than the delivery of messages. Especial care and watchfulness on the part of each Manager is required against delay in this respect.

G E N E R A L   R U L E S


       For information in relation to Rates of Tariff, and other matters not fully understood, Office Managers will apply to their District Superintendent.


       A careful estimate of articles required for the succeeding quarter must be made with the report for the last month in the quarter for which the office has been supplied, and accompanying the same report, an inventory of all the property of the office belonging to the Telegraph Company, including office supplies.


       Managers are prohibited from purchasing stationery and other ordinary office supplies. All such articles will be furnished from the Supply Department, on requisition of Managers sent to District Superintendents.


       Supplies for branch offices will be drawn from the Main Office in the same place, and receipts taken for the same, which will be returned as vouchers.


       All instruments, relays, keys, switches or parts of same not in use, and all refuse zinc and copper from main or local batteries, and other property not in use, must be reported to the District Superintendent, quarterly, at the time of making requisition for supplies, stating number, kind or quantity of each. The Superintendent will then direct what disposition shall be made of the same.


       Transfer of any article belonging to the Company must not be made fiom one office to another, nor must any article be sold or disposed of by any Manager, Operator, Repairer, or other person, without specific directions from the Superintendent.


       It is indispensably necessary that there should be uniformity in the mode of making out Monthly Reports. The receipts and expenditures must be carefully classified, and entered under the proper heads on the face of the Report.


       The Tariff rate should be observed in entering messages in the Register Book, and not the amount stated in check when it varies from printed tariff.


       At the end of each day, all messages sent or received by Telegraph must be carefully sorted, placing those sent to or received from each office together, and then register those for each office by themselves, in alphabetical order, and foot the amount of each office by itself.


       The amount paid or received at the office keeping the Register, will be entered in the column headed "Receipts." The same sum will be entered in the column "Other offices check this." The amount paid or to be collected at other offices will be entered in the columns "This office checks other offices."


       Whenever a Telegraph Line not belonging to this Company, has an office to which a sum is paid for forwarding business, the same must be entered in the column headed "Paid other Lines." And when any sum is received from such office for forwarding business, it must be entered as "Received from other Lines."


       At the foot of each day's business in the Register, may be entered the sum total "for this Line," and "for other Lines " paid at the office keeping the Register.


       As soon as the business of each day is registered, the checks must be posted into the Check Ledger. For instance, " Buffalo" must enter under " Akron," against the day of the month, the sums, if any, which Akron ought to check Buffalo that day, and also what Buffalo checks Akron; and so of all other offices with which it has had any business that day.


       In all places where there is a Bank receiving deposits, Managers of offices whose daily cash receipts exceed ten dollars, will, unless otherwise directed, deposit in such Bank daily, in their name, as "Office Manager of The Western Union Telegraph Company," all the cash on hand at the close of banking hours, giving preference, in all cases, to National Banks, when practicable. If the daily cash receipts are less than ten dollars, then such deposits will be made as often as the accumulated receipts amount to ten dollars. It is expected that Managers will be able to make arrangements with such deposit Bank to allow a reasonable rate of interest on daily balances; or if in some cases the deposits should not be sufficient to justify a claim for interest, then to arrange with such Bank to pay the balances, which are to be remitted to the Treasurer, fiom time to time, in New York exchange.


       A Monthly Report of the business of the office must be made up by the Manager, at the close of each month, and be forwarded to the District Superintendent not later than the third day of the next succeeding month, accompanied by vouchers for authorized expenditures. Such Report will contain an Account Current-a statement of any uncollected accounts, with list of the debtors alphabetically arranged, and the amount due from each, and a separate list of the debts which accrued prior to the month reported, and such other information as may be required by the blank form of report which will be furnished. Managers will also at the same time forward a Monthly Check Report, showing in detail the amount charged to their office by other offices, and the amount charged by them against other offices.


       All Office Balances due the Company are subject only to the order of the Treasurer, and the Manager will remit at the close of each month, direct to the Treasurer, (unless otherwise ordered) the entire receipts of the office for such month, except such sums as may be expended by order of the District Superintendent for fixed salaries of office employes, and other strictly necessary office expenses, such as office rent, light and fuel. (See Rule No. 11.) NO other payments, advances or disbursements will be made by Managers to any person, or for any purpose, except by order of the Treasurer. NO Balances will be allowed to remain unpaid after the end of each month, but each months business must be promptly closed up and settled by itself.


       Remittances to the Treasurer will in all cases (unless otherwise directed) be made by Express, in Greenbacks or National Bank bills, or by Mail, in Bank Draft on New York, payable to the order of the Treasurer. When made by Express, Managers will take receipts for the same, and promptly inform the Treasurer by Mail, of date and amount of remittance. An explanatory letter must be enclosed with every remittance, (whether by Express or Mail,) stating on what account the remittance is made. When money is sent by Express, the amount must in all cases be plainly endorsed on the envelope. Promptness in forwarding Reports to District Superintendents, and remittances to Treasurer, is enjoined on all Managers. No person will be retained in charge of an office who is remiss in these particulars.


       At the end of the month the checks must be footed and entered in the Monthly Report of Checks, against the name of each office, and the same sent to the Superintendent. Thus, if according to Buffalo Report, Cleveland should check Buffalo "For this Line, $40; "For other Lines, $20"; and Cleveland checks Buffalo the same, it may be presumed they are right.


       In addition to the Receipts for Telegraphing, debit the office in the Monthly Report with all money received during the month, and state from whom received.


       No credit will be allowed in the Monthly Report for any expenditure which has not been actually paid.


       In expressing messages, be careful to ascertain that the amount paid out does not exceed the sum received therefor at the office from which the message was sent.


       All money received for expressing messages at other poitits, must be shown separately on the face of the Monthly Report.


       Whenever the balance of Monthly Report is in favor of an office, bring forward such balance in the succeeding report, at same time debiting the amount received from the Treasurer in payment thereof.


       Send a voucher for every expenditure, numbered to correspond with its entry on the Monthly Report sheet. Vouchers should in every possible case be rendered upon the blank forms furnished by this Company. Employes will be careful to keep themselves supplied with the necessary blanks therefor.


       All vouchers must be made out in a careful and explicit manner before payment, so that each voucher shall clearly and fully explain itself. Vouchers in pencil mark are absolutely prohibited.


       Vouchers receipted by "his mark," must be witnessed by some person other than the one disbursing the money. Vouchers receipted "for," or by any person other than the one to whom the account is due, shall be accompanied with the written order of the person to whom the money is due, showing authority of the person to receipt " for."


       Vouchers bearing alterations of figures or amounts will be rejected. The amount covered by the receipt to any voucher must be written in such receipt in words, not figures.


       Service vouchers must give the full name of the person or party paid- must state the occupation or kind of service rendered- the location or place where the service was performed- must give the dates from and to, inclusive, for which service is paid, and the rate per day or month. When a payment is made for a part or fraction of a month, the number of days also should be given as well as the dates. Care should be observed to date the payment of each voucher. Time for which service is rendered, must be computed according to the actual number of days in the month in which service is performed, and parts or fractions of any month in proportion to the whole number of days such month contains, whether it be 28, 29, 30, or 31 days.


       All employes of this Company, who are authorized to disburse the funds of the Company, shall do so only in an official capacity, under their official designation.


       No person will be re-imbursed for money paid out except the account for same shall be accompanied by sub-vouchers from the person or party to whom the amount or amounts have actually been paid.


       Managers are specially prohibited from paying out any money for office furniture, repairs, supplies, or for any other purpose, except to pay fixed monthly salaries of employes, rent of office, light and fuel, and the few small contingent items of expense which may be absolutely necessary- and they must take receipts from every person to whom they pay money, and return such receipts with their monthly reports as vouchers.


       Send no counterfeit, uncurrent or broken bank bills, and as little fractional or postal currency as possible.


       When called upon for explanation of differences in receipts or check errors, prompt attention must be given to them, and be careful to observe the clear and explicit directions printed on the back of the Check Audit Sheet. No neglect of this very important matter will be tolerated. It is only by a zealous and immediate attention that discrepancies, (sometimes unavoidable), can be corrected.


       Whenever a Manager vacates his office during the month, he will settle his accounts, and pay over to his successor all the funds in his hands, and send report of such settlement with the receipt of his successor for money paid and property delivered to him.


       If any repair or other extraordinary expenditure is necessary in an office, the District Superintendent must direct it in writing, giving particular instructions on the subject, limiting the cost; then, after the work is done, the Manager will obtain a true account of the same, and forward to the Superintendent for adjustment.


       No charge for increase of salaries will be allowed, unless accompanied by the authority of the General Superintendent.


       Whenever the Manager of an office obtains satisfactory evidence that a message has failed, either in the transmission or delivery, or by reason of an error arising from any fault of the Company, the amount originally received for transmission only may be refunded, in which case a receipt will be talen for the amount, which, together with the message and an explanation of the fact, will be forwarded with next Monthly Report.


       No Manager or Operator is allowed to adjudicate or pay claims for damages arising from.the failure of, or error in transmission of a message.


       When collection of charges upon any "Collect" Message CANNOT BE MADE, the office from which it was originally sent must be promptly notified by Telegraph, and a copy of the message made and sent by Mail to the Manager of the Office, with the reason for being uncollectable endorsed thereon. The Office returning a message WILL IN NO CASE request that it be NOT CHECKED; but the message must be entered upon the books both at starting point and destination, precisely the same as if collection had been made-credit for the amount at the receiving office being taken in "Account Current" in Monthly Report, with which the message, or a copy, with reason for being uncollectable, will be enclosed as a voucher. The date upon which notice by telegraph was given to the office from which sent, must be stated. The Office receiving the notice will, if possible, collect the amount from the sender of the message; in which case the amount collected should be entered upon the debit side of "Account Current," as received from "Guaranteed Messages," and the copy of the message enclosed therewith. In case collection cannot be made of the sender, the message, endorsed with the reason, should also be enclosed with Monthly Report, but no account otherwise will be made of it. Uncollected press reports will be treated in the same manner, except that a copy of the report need not be forwarded to the Manager of the office at which the report originated.


       If the message originated at any point not on this Company's lines, the connecting office, or the office at which it first reached this Company's lines, as well as the office from which it was originally sent, must be promptly notified BY TELEGRAPH, in order that collection may be made from "other lines." The copy by Mail in such cases, will only be sent to the connecting or repeating office.


       When three or more messages are returned from any Office as uncollectable or three or more messages are accounted for as "guaranteed," separate lists of each must be made, showing the amounts for this and "other lines," and the messages as sub-vouchers attached thereto.


       At offices where business is exchanged with other lines, a separate list must be made, showing the amount refunded by other Companies, and upon what messages, and the amounts thus received will be carried into Account Current as "Refunded from Other Lines."


       Each office will check direct with all other offices of this Company.


       A copy of these rules must be kept in the office at all times, for the information and guidance of employes of this Company only.


       Persons not connected with the business of the office, will not be allowed within the office barriers.


       Messages must be held sacred, and the books, files and papers of the Company must never be permitted to be examined by persons not having proper authority to do so.


       The printed blank forms of the Company should be used only for the purpose for which they are expressly designed. In no case, and under no pretence whatsoever, will number one blanks or number three envelopes be given out to persons not entitled to them. No excuse will be received for neglect of this requirement.


       All messages whatsoever- including Press Reports, are strictly private and confidential, and must be thus treated by employes of this Company. Information must in no case be given to persons not clearly entitled to receive it, concerning any message passed or designed to pass over the wires or through the offices of this Company.


       The office hours assigned to each employe must be adhered to, and absence from duty within these hours will not be permitted, except by authority of the Superintendent; and in all cases deduction will be made for lost time.


       Intermediate or Way Offices will not close for the night without first ascertaining from the nearest repeating office or offices, if there is any business for them.


       Managers and office employes are prohibited from giving copies of sent messages, or written statements relating thereto, to parties claiming errors or delays. In all such cases, parties claiming damages should be treated with courtesy and furnished with such proper explanations as will induce the withdrawal of the claim. If still dissatisfied, they should be referred to the District Superintendent. This rule has been rendered necessary by the injudicious and officious action of some office Managers.

              Gen'l Sup't Central Division.

       THOS. T. ECKERT,
              Gen'l Sup't Eastern Division.

              Gen'l Sup't Southern Division.


       There is much useless consumption of material by many offices, and the following directions will be observed, more especially by those to whom the care of a local battery is a new duty.


       The jar having been cleaned, set the copper in the jar, spreading it as wide as the jar will admit. Fill the pocket with pulverized vitriol, and hang on the edge of the jar where the copper is open. Having filled the porous cup with soft or rain water sufficiently full as not to overflow when the zincs are inserted, put the zinc into the porous cup, having first placed the cup inside of the copper.


       Pour soft water slowly through the vitriol in the pocket, filling up with the pulverized vitriol as it is reduced by the flow of water. No vitriol should be allowed to be dropped into either the jar or porous cup.


       In making up the battery-for the first time, it will aid action (which is never perfect until the saturation of the porous cup,) by warming the water before pouring on the vitriol. No salt or acid should ever be used for this purpose.
       The Local Battery should be renewed at least once a week, and at an hour when it will not interfere with the day's business.
       Take the battery apart, cleaning the zincs well with a brush, and scraping off accumulations, using no acids or mercury in doing so. Be especially careful that the connecting points are all well brightened.
       Should the battery need renewing during the week, take out the zincs, clean them, save one-third of the fluid in the porous cups, and return to the cup after cleaning, then fill up with soft water. Clean also the porous cups.
       The economy as well as the efficiency of this battery depends on the proper use of vitriol. Two pounds per cup per month is a full supply. Many operators do not use more than half this quantity, and have always good, efficient batteries.
       There is also a variance in the number of cells used. Where the connections and zincs are kept clean, two cells are quite sufficient-some operators use only one. With the cells furnished by the Western Union Company, more than two cells should never be used, and will not be furnished. Twelve pounds of vitriol per quarter should always prove a full supply. The strictest economy is urged in the use of material, the cost of which is now so enormous.
       It must be remembered, also, that the copper of the cells is constantly increasing in size by the action of the battery, and that this copper is valuable, and must be returned to the Company according to directions given by the Superintendent of the Supply Department. Coppers may be used years without renewal, and orders for new ones should not be made until the encrustation renders renewal desirable.
       The local battery must always be made to stand on a dry place, and no dampness allowed on the space between the cells. The wires, also, should be carefully insulated to prevent action except through the whole circuit. Care should be taken, also, to open the local circuit at night, to prevent waste. Zincs need renewing about once a quarter. Porous cups are good until broken, unless from want of cleaning they become coated so as tobe useless. There is no necessity for ordering these every quarter as some offices do.