O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME VI, Chapter XV [S# 6]
JANUARY 1, 1862.--Engagement at Port Royal Ferry, Coosaw River, S.C. No. 12. --
Reports of Lieut. Henry S. Tafft, Fifteenth Massachusetts Infantry, signal officer.

Beaufort, S.C., January 3, 1862.

       GENERAL: I have the honor to report that, agreeably to your instructions, I accompanied the expedition under your command to the mainland, and was present during the engagement with the enemy near Port Royal Ferry on the 1st instant; that during the whole time your requests to the commander of the gunboats were successfully transmitted by the system of signals invented by Major Myer. The firing from the gunboats was in this manner done in entire concert with you, and therefore proved the most effective, as the various positions of the enemy were thus made known to Captain Rodgers, commanding gunboats. My signal flag, carried by myself, was repeatedly fired upon when in presence of the enemy. Without egotism, I claim the honor for Lieutenant Cogswell (who was on gunboat Ottawa) and myself of being the first signal officers who have performed signal duty under fire upon the battle-field since the adoption of the system into the service of the United States; whether successfully or not I of course leave to your judgment.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Lieutenant, Signal Officer.

Brigadier-General STEVENS, 
Commanding Second Brigade.


Beaufort, S.C., January 4, 1862.

       MAJOR: I have the honor to report that I was present and took part in the battle of Port Royal Ferry on the 1st instant, Lieut. William S. Cogswell being on board gunboat Ottawa, acting in concert with me.

       General Stevens (commanding our troops) directed all the firing from the gunboats during the battle through the signal officers, naming different points where their shells should be thrown, when to cease firing, when to open fire, &c., thus enabling the gunboats to use their artillery <ar6_64> with as much precision as though they were upon the field, and consequently creating terrible slaughter among the enemy.

       I had before the battle caused to be made some two dozen flags, blue and white to be carried by our troops, to prevent any mistakes by firing upon each other, and also to assist the firing from the gunboats, which I believe was a great assistance, and effectually prevented any such unfortunate errors.

       Lieutenant Cogswell and myself had also arranged a simple code for certain messages, which enabled us to work with surprising quickness, and by so doing added still more to the success of your system of signaling. I believe that an impromptu code can always be arranged by signal officers for use upon any important occasion of this kind, and when they know their ground, which will prove of immense service. I found in this manner that I could send a message from the battle-field to Lieutenant Cogswell between the discharges of artillery, when the smoke lifted, which could not otherwise have been done.

       My flag was repeatedly fired upon, the enemy seeming to understand its use and importance. Their battery, which was concealed in the woods, threw canister and shell directly across the field in which I was stationed, and, although they struck all around and near me, neither myself nor the man with me (Sergeant Ried) were hurt.

       My feet were first upon the shore of the mainland of South Carolina, the signal flag the first to wave, and it was kept constantly flying during the whole engagement.

       At 10 p.m. I returned to Beaufort with a dispatch for General Sherman, at Hilton Head, announcing our success, and Lieutenant Town immediately went back to the ferry to act in my place in case of necessity.

       I believe that the very great assistance rendered by the use of your system of signals aided very materially in gaining a victory for us, and that fact I also think is fully impressed upon the mind of the general commanding, as well as upon the officer commanding the gunboats.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

First Lieut. Fifteenth Mass. Regt. Vols., Actg. Sig. Off.

Commanding Signal Corps.


O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME 8 [S# 8] 
FEBRUARY 28--APRIL 8, 1862.
Operations at New Madrid, Mo., and Island No. 10, and descent upon Union City, Tenn.
No. 34. -- Reort of Capt. Edward W. Rucker, C. S. Artillery.


March 26, 1862.

       GENERAL: In compliance with your order I submit the following report of the occurrences at Battery No. 1 (the redan fort) during the bombardment by the enemy since the 15th instant, while commanding said battery:

       On the morning of Saturday, March 15, the Federal fleet appeared in sight, coming down the Seven-Mile Reach above the fort at 11 a.m. The enemy's advance, consisting of several gun and mortar boats, seemed to be examining for a position to commence an attack. Shortly after several shot and shell were fired at the battery and at intervals during the day.

       At 5 p.m., observing several tugs nearly in front of my battery, reconnoitering a slough just above the sand bar, and with transports seeming to locate at this point two mortar boats, I opened fire upon them, throwing several shells, some falling short and others ranging beyond. The transports immediately moved away, when the gunboats and mortars replied to the fire.

       At 9 p.m. Captain Cummings, of the Signal Corps, came up to my battery to establish a signal station. He reported to me that a large steamboat would be sunk in the slough during the night, which was done by Captain Gray, of the Engineers, at about 2 o'clock Sunday <ar8_160> morning, thus effectually preventing the passage of the enemy through that channel.

       Sunday morning, the 16th, I observed, as soon as it was light, that the enemy had in position four mortar boats, with which they kept up a slow but constant fire on my battery.

       About 9 o'clock this morning, as a signal was being made to headquarters, a small tug-boat, bearing a flag of truce, came down to the battery from the gunboats. The officer, a captain in the Federal Navy, without landing, inquired if we desired to communicate with the fleet, as he had observed a white flag. I answered him, "No." I would here state I had not noticed till then the signal flag to be a white one. At this moment General Trudeau came up and said to the officer it was a signal to headquarters, and that the flag should be changed to one of another color. I did not fire to-day, though the enemy kept up the bombardment from their gun and mortar boats at intervals during the twenty-four hours.

       On Monday morning, the 17th, the enemy having placed two gunboats alongside their four mortar boats on the Missouri side, were observed to move closer to us and fix three large gunboats, apparently lashed together, very near the Tennessee shore, and about 1 mile off, evidently, if possible, to enfilade the battery. They moved down very slowly, keeping up an incessant fire from the rifled guns. I was prepared to open fire on them when a little nearer, but I received orders from General Trudeau, at headquarters, through Colonel Steedman, to return the enemy's fire immediately.

       The contest now became general from five gunboats and four mortar boats. This was at 11 a.m., the 17th. Our batteries, from No. 1 to the island, inclusive, now engaged also in the defense. From their greater distance they ceased to fire after a while, when the enemy turned their whole force on my little forts, pouring an incessant fire from the mortars and broadsides from rifled cannon of the heaviest caliber. This terrible cannonading lasted until 7 o'clock in the evening, when the enemy hauled off, evidently having the appearance of being crippled.

       During this engagement only three guns (8-inch columbiads) were used by me. They were mounted upon iron carriages, constructed at New Orleans for the Navy, and were situated in the principal salient angles of the fort. Three others, smooth-bore 32s, which I did not fire, make the complement of six guns in Battery No. 1.

       At about 4 o'clock on the 17th I had the sad misfortune to lose my second lieutenant (William M. Clark) while nobly standing to his gun, which he had so skillfully served. Lieutenant Clark died immediately, and the country and our cause has sustained a loss in the death of so gallant and excellent an officer.

       Seven of my men, including Sergeant Postlethwaite, were wounded, but, fortunately, not severely. The result of our shot from the columbiads could not be told with precision; but the coolness of the cannoneers and officers, the accuracy of aim, and excellence of the guns must have had a telling effect on the enemy. The effect of the enemy's fire upon our little fort was very severe by the continuous discharge of broadsides from so many guns of heavy caliber. The enemy fired 42-pounder rifled cannon, 8 and 10 inch columbiads, with 13 and 15 inch shell from their mortars. The parapet, which was originally 24 feet thick, had been very much washed by the freshet in the river now existing, the water being within I inch of the top of the platform inside the fort. Many shot and shell fell immediately in the rear of our guns, while <ar8_161> others passed through the parapet, plowing up the earth and destroying much of the work.

       To the peculiarly well-located faces of the fort for preventing an enfilading fire from the most favorable position which the enemy's boats could take I attribute chiefly the loss of only one of my command. Had the fort been differently constructed at this point we must certainly have met with far greater casualties. The redan connects with the cremaillere line a part of a series of works planned by Captain Gray, of the Engineer Corps, for the defense of the valley—of the Mississippi Valley--at Island No. 10. 

       Through the night of the 17th the enemy kept up the bombardment from rifled guns and mortars. Since then they have not returned to the close position occupied by them on that day, although they have kept up a continual fire with heavy shell and shot at a greater distance, fortunately doing but little damage to us.

       First Lieut. J. E. Saunders and Orderly Sergt. George J. Chapman, of my company, together with E. Jones and Samuel Jones, of the Signal Corps, were engaged with me the whole day in the defense of the redan, all of whom bore themselves with great coolness and gallantry. Signal-Officer Jones, having the staff of his signal-flag shot away thrice during the engagement, seized the flag in his hand without looking around to listen to exclamations, and continued his important message to headquarters.

       First Lieut. Thomas J. Finnie, with a detachment of 10 men from Captain Sterling's battery (No. 2) and 7 men from Captain Hoadley's battery (No. 3) came to my relief at 4 o'clock on the afternoon of the 17th and gallantly served a gun amid a most terrible fire of the enemy.

       Colonel Steedman was with me most of the afternoon, aiding me in every possible way, bringing up re-enforcements through the water, which entirely surrounded the fort, and a detachment from the First Alabama Regiment, with Lieutenants Sanford and Owens, remained in the fort assisting me until the arrival of Lieutenant Finhie.

       During the afternoon Lieutenant Tidmarsh, of the Ordnance, and Captains Harris, Wintter, and Gray also came to assist me.

       Captains Gray, chief engineer, and Wintter, Lieutenant McMahon, of the Engineers, with the Sappers and Miners, and a force of hands (negroes), under Major Estis, of Haywood County, Tennessee, rendered most efficient service, repairing damages, under fire of the enemy, and putting the fort in a defensible condition.

       Notwithstanding the bombardment has been continued by the enemy each day and night since the 17th instant, but very little return fire has been made by us, from the fact of the long range at which they have chosen their position. But to the officers who have relieved me from day to day I respectfully refer to for detailed reports.

       To Colonel Steedman and all the above officers and men with me under fire of the enemy on the 17th instant I desire to express my deep indebtedness for their services.

       To the general commanding, to General Walker, and to General Trudeau, chief of artillery, who have sustained me in the defense of the redan, I desire to return my sincere thanks.

All of which is respectfully submitted.

Capt.. of Arty., C.S.. Army, Comdg. Bat. No. 1.

Maj. Gen. JOHN P. MCCOWN, 


O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME X/1 [S# 10]
Cumberland Gap (Tenn.) Campaign, No. 2.
Reports of Brig. Gen. George W. Morgan, U. S. Army,
commanding Seventh Division, Army of the Ohio.
MARCH 28 - JUNE 18, 1862.

       It affords me great pleasure to indorse all that Colonel De Courcy has said in commendation of his acting brigade quartermaster, Lieut. J. D. Stubbs, Forty-second Regiment Ohio Volunteers. I am also deeply indebted to Lieut. H. G. Fisher and his corps of signal officers; to Lieut. C. H. Rogers, of the First Tennessee, for many acts of daring service, and to Capt. W. G. Fuller, superintendent of the military telegraph. He has always been efficient, and his telegraphic line has nearly kept pace with the advance of my column. Nor can I close this report without expressing my deep obligations to Capt. W. F. Patterson and the men of his command. He has rendered me constant and invaluable services during the two past months in making roads and constructing bridges on the various routes upon which my troops have moved and supplies have been received. His company was organized by the Military Board of Kentucky, but from some cause was not mustered into the service of the United States, though it has been performing the most arduous services under the command of different generals of the United States Army. General Thomas detailed Captain Patterson's command on extra duty while he commanded in the vicinity of Somerset, and for more than two months he has been discharging similar duty under my command. His company has never been paid, and I respectfully request authority to muster Captain Patterson and his company into the service of the United States.

       Had the enemy not evacuated I should have taken up a position 2 miles in his rear and pounded him with my heavy guns and cut off his supplies until he should be forced to abandon his stronghold and give us a fair fight in an open field.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Brigadier-General Volunteers, Commanding.

Col. J. B. FRY, 
Chief of Staff, Florence, Ala.


O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME X/2 [S# 11]

April 24, 1862.(*)

First Lieutenant, Acting Signal Officer :

       SIR: I have the honor to report the state of the Signal Corps for the week ending to-day. The officers accompanying the Fourth Division (General Nelson) have sent to these headquarters a report, from which I make the following abstract: "We arrived at the scene of battle (Pittsburg Landing) on Sunday, the 6th instant, while the fight was raging fiercely, with the day to all appearances against the Union forces. We were an hour in advance of our column, and General Nelson, wishing to communicate with General Buell, I immediately crossed the river with Lieutenant Hart and our flag-man, leaving Lieutenants Butler and Leonard at the first station. I established <ar11_296> my station, and in a few minutes General Nelson and General Buell were communicating with each other. We kept our stations working from about 4 o'clock on Sunday evening until Monday morning, when we were ordered to report on the field for duty. We were soon on the field with General Nelson, but owing to the fight being entirely in the woods and the woods being very thick, it was impossible for us to operate to any advantage. We remained on the field during the entire engagement, until our forces were completely victorious and the rebel foe was routed." This communication was signed "Joseph Hinson."

       Of the officers with the Third Division (General Mitchel's). from another report I send the following: "I received orders from Colonel Mihalotzy, of the Twenty-fourth Illinois, to report myself to my regiment, for company duty. The same order was issued to my men.

       "Having been detailed for signal duty by the highest authority in the department, and being anxious to render the corps serviceable as such, I objected to doing any other duty than that for which I had been detailed. I therefore repaired to General Mitchel, and was by him informed that a battle was expected by break of day; that he would have no use for us as signal officers, and that we might join our respective companies if we wished to be of service in the expected battle. The officers of the corps then reported themselves to their regiments for company duty until the close of the fight, if any should occur, and acted as company officers on the march to and until a few hours after our arrival at Huntsville. No horses have been supplied to us; no notice is taken of us in any degree, and the officers all feel as if the corps was being but little valued by the division and brigade commanders.— E. F. C. Klokke."

       Lieutenant Galbraith, of the Second Division (General McCook's), reports that Lieut. William A. Sutherland, of the Nineteenth Ohio Volunteers, reported to him for instructions in signal duty, saying he was ordered by General Buell to do so. Not wishing to act upon his own responsibility in such a case, he wrote to me for instructions. I replied if an order from General Buell was produced, to instruct him at such times as would not interfere with his duty on the field.

       Private L. O. Blanding, of the Sixth Pennsylvania Reserves, when absent from camp without leave and while endeavoring to elude the provost-guard, was shot through the head and died two days afterward, on the 17th instant, in hospital, at Nashville. Steps have been taken to carry out the articles of the regulations referring to such cases.

       Private Charles Bliss, Seventh Regiment Pennsylvania Reserves, has been discharged from the service on account of disability, caused by rheumatism in the left elbow joint, which renders his arm entirely useless.

       Horses were purchased for us on an order issued by General Buell, and were already on the cars to be shipped here when an order from general headquarters was received to send them to Pittsburg Landing, to supply the place of horses lost in the recent engagement in that vicinity. We are informed that they will be replaced soon.

Yours, respectfully,

First Lieut., Acting Signal Officer, District of the Ohio.


O.R.-- Series 1, Volume 30, Part 1, pp. 239-244
Reports of Captain Jesse Merrill, U. S. Signal Corps, Chief Signal Officer.
September 27, 1863 ~ October 1, 1863 ~ October 31, 1863
(Battle of Chickamauga ~ After Action Report)

Chattanooga, September 27, 1863.


       I have the honor to state that our official report of the working of this detachment before, during, and immediately after the battles of 19th, 20th, and 21st instant is being prepared, and a copy will be forwarded to you soon.

       Stations of observation communicating directly with department headquarters were occupied on Lookout Mountain, and much valuable information obtained. They were valuable also for communication, as the map [not found] I will send you with my report shows. Brigadier-General Morton, chief engineer, informed me that every movement indicated by the reports of observations made had been by the result proved correct. It was impossible to communicate on the battle-field, owing to the dense timber, but communication was kept up with our flanks, and observations continued until the army had safely retired to Chattanooga. Four officers were left on the point of Lookout Mountain, and a regiment of infantry sent there to guard them. Their horses and wagons were sent to camp, they retaining three days' rations. The road to the top of the mountain was destroyed. They remained there until the enemy, having ascended some 10 miles farther down the mountain, demonstrated on them so strongly that General Rosecrans ordered them to withdraw under cover of night. They got off safely after having climbed down the side of a mountain more than 2,000 feet high. Lieutenant George W. Landrum, a valuable and efficient officer, is missing, and nothing of his whereabouts can be learned. Private William L. Vorhis was slightly wounded, and is missing.

       I have to report the loss of almost 3 miles of insulated wire, which, by direction of General Rosecrans, was used in completing his telegraphic communication with Chattanooga.

Very respectfully, colonel, your obedient servant,

Captain, and Chief Sig. Officer, Dept. of the Cumberland.

Signal Officer of the Army.

Chattanooga, Tenn., October 1, 1863.


       I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of the detachment of the signal corps with this army, under my command during this campaign, commencing with our arrival at Stevenson:

       Immediately after the occupation of Sequatchie Valley by the Twenty-first Army Corps, communication by signal was established from Pikeville to Dunlap [corps headquarters], and from there to Therman. This was afterward connected with line from Stevenson [department headquarters] to Jasper, via Bridgeport, and subsequently with that part of the Twentieth Army Corps which crossed the Tennessee River at Caperton's Ferry. This formed a continuous line of signals from the right to the left of the army.

       On the 4th of September, a line branching from the main line at Crown Point, on Walden's Ridge, running across that ridge to the front of Chattanooga, the position occupied by Wagner's and Wilder's brigades, was established.

       After the crossing of the river by the troops, our line was changed so as to connect with the telegraph at Shellmound. The telegraph having then been extended to Whiteside's, from which point, after department headquarters were established near Trenton, the signal telegraph line connected with it and extended to the mouth of Murphy's Cove, signal communication was attempted to be established from this point to headquarters, but it was found impossible, as the enemy held Lookout Mountain. When, however, General Beatty's brigade advanced to the top of the mountain, this was established, and from the same point constant communication kept with this brigade as it advanced toward Chattanooga.

       After reaching Chattanooga, officers were immediately sent to the point of Lookout Mountain for observation, and soon after a station communicating with department headquarters, through this station on Lookout Mountain, was established at Rossville.

       Communication from department headquarters to headquarters Fourteenth Army Corps was established up Lookout Valley as rapidly as possible.

       The delay and length of time consumed in getting this line in working order to corps headquarters at Stevens' Gap, on south side of Lookout Mountain, was occasioned by the length of time necessarily consumed by the officers in coming from the stations assigned them on this line.

       It was opened to Deer-head Cove on the 13th of September, and on the following day, by using the signal telegraph to connect stations across the mountain, the line was completed.

       On the 12th instant a station for observation was established on top of mountain, communicating with a station at headquarters Twentieth Army Corps, then near Alpine; valuable information regarding the movements of the enemy was thus obtained and sent to Major-General McCook.

       Stations communicating with our advance in Chattanooga Valley were established at Ringgold, Gordon's Mills, and Alley's house, headquarters Twenty-first Army Corps, at different times. When department headquarters were established at Crawfish Spring on the 16th instant, communication with Major-General Crittenden at Alley's house was opened via High Point, on Lookout Mountain. On the 17th, from the same point, communication was opened with Major-Generals Thomas and McCook, the former near Alley's house and the latter at Pond Spring. The signal telegraph connected General Thomas with General McCook, and from the headquarters of the former a communicating station with station of observation at Stevens' Gap. During the night of the 17th three more officers were sent to High Point, so that the movements of the enemy could be more closely watched and these observations and the official messages passing over our lines be more easily transmitted. Communication was at the same time opened with Summertown, the communicating station with Rossville. These lines were all worked during the 18th and 19th. On the night of the 19th a station communicating with High Point was opened near the battle-field, and kept open on the 20th. The station at Crawfish Spring was also kept open as long as the cavalry on our right were there.

       The observation of the movements of the enemy on the battle-field or communication by signal between different parts of the army on the field was totally impossible on account of the dense timber. The same reason, together with smoke and dust, prevented our officers on Lookout Mountain at High Point and Summertown from seeing and reporting their movements.

       On the night of the 20th the officers were ordered in from High Point and those on the point of Lookout Mountain ordered to send their wagons and horses to camp, to retain three days' rations, and remain there as long as possible.

       On the evening of the 23rd, the regiment sent there as a guard was attacked by what was supposed to be a largely superior force. It was deemed imprudent to keep the position any longer, and that night, in accordance with orders from the commanding general, they were withdrawn.

       On the 21st, at Rossville, a short line was established from that front to a point near General Thomas' headquarters.

       It is not easy to distinguish between officers who do and officers who do not do their duty, when they are scattered along lines of such length and over so large an extent of country that they cannot be under the personal observation of the person reporting them. The reports of the transmission of messages, and the time occupied, gives this more truly than anything else. These reports have not all been made, and I can only say that so far as my own observation goes, the officers and men of this detachment have all labored hard and zealously to accomplish the end for which the corps was formed. At times we have failed as much through my own error as any other cause. I would ask that it be remembered in excuse for this that the system is almost a new one, and now only being fully developed. Without any books of instruction or precedents to guide us, the signal corps has been made what it is, and with the experience which our work gives us, and the advice and direction of those over us, we hope to bring it to the full standard of usefulness.

       I have to report Lieutenant George W. Landrum, a valuable and efficient officer, as missing. He was dispatched by General Thomas with a message for General Rosecrans, on the afternoon of the 21st instant, since which time nothing is known of him. Private William L. Vorhis was wounded same day, and is also missing.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Captain, and Chief Sig. Officer, Dept. of the Cumberland.

Lieutenant Colonel C. GODDARD,
Asst. Adjt. General, Department of the Cumberland.

Chattanooga, October 31, 1863.


       I have the honor to make the following report of the operations of this detachment for the month ending to-day. In order to do it I will have to begin with last few days in September, during which some of the lines and stations were established that have been worked during this month.

       On the 24th of September a high hill on the west side of the town known as Cameron's Hill was occupied, timber cut away, a lookout built on top of a tree, and communication opened with these headquarters. Officers were stationed at every available point along our front, and every point at all valuable for observation was occupied. Several of these stations were connected by signal, but owing to wood and other obstructions it was found easier and more rapid to use couriers.

       On the 25th of September a station was established on Stringer's Ridge, 4 miles up the river, communicating with Cameron's Hill station. It was established as a station of observation. A better point having been found, Crane's Hill, this station was moved to that point on the 27th, and communication opened.

       On the 27th, officers were ordered to different stations on the line to Jasper, and the line was reported open on the 29th. This line was kept open until October 12, when the telegraph line having been completed, all the stations beyond Bob White's, in accordance with orders from General Rosecrans, were taken up. The stations on Walden's Ridge and at Bob White's were left for observing the movements of the enemy on the opposite side of the river along the base of Raccoon Mountain. They were made very useful afterward (when the telegraph was cut and every courier who ventured along the road was shot by a concealed rebel on the opposite side of the river from the road) as a means of reaching the courier line at a point from which they could reach telegraphic communication with safety. On the 20th communication was established between Fort Whitaker, a point on the opposite side of the river directly opposite the point of Lookout Mountain, and Cameron's Hill.

       On the night of the 26th an expedition under General Smith crossed the river at Brown's Ferry. Four officers were sent out with it, and on the morning of the 27th after our troops had taken position communication was established with Cameron's Hill. Three stations are now being worked, connecting with Cameron's Hill. Three stations are now being worked, connecting General Smith with his brigade commanders. During the night of the 28th General Hooker connected his left with the troops of General Smith, having marched down Lookout Valley from Wauhatchie Junction. On the morning of the 29th, 2 officers were sent to him, and communication was opened in the afternoon of that day. I will be able to report more fully with reference to these expeditions when I receive the reports of the officers who are with them. Much valuable information has been collected by the officers on stations of observation with reference to the movements, number, and position of the enemy.

       The field telegraph was used to connect the stations at Bob White's and Crown Point, department headquarters was connected with each of the corps headquarters, and the Morse instrument used for some days. Our own instruments were then put in, connecting Generals Rosecrans' and Thomas' headquarters, and the line taken up to the headquarters Twentieth and Twenty-first Corps, as there was no further use for them. On the 27th a line connecting these headquarters with Cameron's Hill was established.

       What we have accomplished during the month has been done under great difficulties. Forage could only be obtained by hauling it for 20 or 30 miles. For awhile we were able to supply ourselves, but the distance it had to be hauled grew greater as the roads grew worse, until the rains made them totally impassable except for wagons double teamed.

       General Rosecrans directed that all the animals that could be spared be sent to where forage could be obtained. We sent all but a very few of our horses, and since then have been compelled to send all to keep them from starvation. Officers have done duty on foot, and been exposed at night because we could not transport their tents to their stations, and am glad to say they have done so without a murmur. We have been as efficient as possible under the circumstances, and I know have rendered good service.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Captain, and Chief Signal Officer.

Signal Officer of the Army.